Wednesday, April 01, 2020

Handmade Stinging Nettle Pasta

First I'll talk about how to make these, and then if you want to stick around and read about Stinging Nettles (Urtica dioica) there will be information after the recipe.

 
This was my second attempt.  A year or more ago I tried and it wasn't terribly successful.  After thinking for a long time about it, the method came together in my head.  Today the nettles called.  The staying home due to COVID-19 was dragging me down, so I answered the call gladly! On the way there (there being the side of the house), I found dandelions, violets, and cherry blossoms - spring pasta supreme!
Recipe:
2 c flour (I used all-purpose)
1 extra large egg
1/3 cup liquified nettle
1/2 tsp salt
violet and dandelion petals (optional)

To liquify the nettle, I put about three cups of leaves from the tips of the plant into a Magic Bullet type blender and added about 2 tablespoons of water.  It required several times of stopping, stirring, and hitting it again.  Skim any foam that forms.  There will be a lot of mud-like solids, and that goes into the pasta.

Put the flour out on a surface - I covered my counter with freezer paper.  Mound and make a hole in the center of the flour.  Pour the egg and nettle juice into that indentation, and start mixing with your hands.  This is why there are no pictures of this process.  My hands were full of dough.  If you need more liquid, add water 1 tablespoon at a time. 

Once the dough starts coming together, begin kneading it. Add any flower petals during the kneading. Continue for about 10 minutes.
Separate the dough into 2 or 3 sections.  Form them into balls and wrap tightly.  Allow the dough to rest for 20 to 30 minutes.

At this point, you can begin rolling it out, or - if you're very lucky - you can use the pasta machine to roll it out.  Even using the machine, I'm afraid I didn't roll it thin enough.  Still good though!
Cut it into strips about 10" long.  I have a snazzy pasta dryer now, but last year I was using thick plastic clothes hangers hooked over the knobs on my upper cabinets.
You can cook it right away, or dry it to store for later use.  I can't find any good information on dried pasta and how long it can be stored.  The key seems to be in the pasta being completely dried.  Many people freeze it.  So if you're going to use it within a week or two, refrigerate.  Freeze if it will be longer.  Personally, I'll probably try to thoroughly dry it and see what happens.  Maybe the dehydrator.  Next time, I will change 2 things. 
#1 roll the pasta thinner
#2 add several garlic mustard leaves.  Maybe a small handful.
What's so great about Stinging Nettles?  Glad you asked.  The following is from the original unedited manuscript of Healing Herbs...

Stinging Nettle really is good for you!  It contains tannic acid, lecithin, chlorophyll, iron, silica, potassium, phosphorus, sulfur, sodium, and vitamins A and C.  The dried leaves contain up to 40% protein, so adding the powdered, dried leaves to smoothies, soups, stews, and a thousand other dishes can boost their nutritional content. 
Leaves and aerial parts of Stinging Nettle are the most used part of the plant.  Some of the talents nettles bring include being diuretic, astringent, pectoral, anodyne, tonic, styptic, nutritive, anti-rheumatic, anti-allergenic, decongestant, expectorant, anti-spasmodic, and anti-histamine, herpetic, galactagogue, and anti-histamine. 
It is often a first line of defense against seasonal allergies.  Taken with a local honey, nettle can shush away mild to moderate symptoms.  It is best to begin use of stinging nettle before allergy season gets underway.
Nettle is used in cases of internal and external bleeding and also helps fight anemia and the fatigue that accompanies anemia due to its available iron content and the vitamin C that helps with absorption.
Inflammatory diseases like arthritis, gout, rheumatism, and soft tissue conditions such as fibromyalgia and tendonitis may find pain relief from daily use. Auto-immune disorders that include joint pain also respond favorably to nettle use.  Nettle contains a healthy quantity of the trace mineral boron, which is important to helping bones retain calcium. 
Effective as a mouthwash against gingivitis and mouth sores, it helps with sore throats and strengthens all mucus membranes, can assist with acid reflux, symptoms of Celiac disease, gas, colitis, nausea, and swollen hemorrhoids.
The endocrine system including thyroid, spleen, and pancreas is supported by this amazing weed as well.
Nettle is a wonderful spring tonic that helps in the elimination of the metabolic wastes that build up during a winter of being indoors, gently stimulating the lymph system and encouraging the kidneys to move things along efficiently. 
Add that to a bowl of pasta, and suddenly it's a health food!

Monday, March 23, 2020

Plan B - We're Changing!

 
In June of 2001, we started gathering subscriptions for the new magazine, which would come out in January of 2002. But first came 9/11 and all extra spending stopped for a month or two. Our launch was stunted compared to the initial indications.  My partners bailed, but I persevered.

Time rolled along, and then in August of '05 Katrina hit NOLA. Magazine subscriptions were the last thing on people's mnds, and for a couple of months I held my breath and scrapped together money to print another issue.

In 2008, there was another hit, as everyone knew at least one person who lost their job. Maybe it happened to you. Every few days I checked to be sure the website was still functioning.

So here we are with the COVID-19 virus, and we're looking at anywhere from a couple weeks to 18 months of social distancing, people out of work, and a worrisome economy.

I already announced in the current issue that we'd be switching to PDF in a year. A lot of you went ahead and switched over early. That timeline has to change.

The May/June issue will go to the printer at the end of the week (unless I hear otherwise from them), and it will be the last PRINTED issue.

The website has already been changed over. We will pro-rate pre-purchaed subscriptions. We are planning to do something special on the months that are not an issue months (Jan, Mar, May, July, Sept, Nov are issues). It could be a lot of different things, but the in person interviews might not happen for a while. Advertisers will get mentions in the off month offerings.

Honestly, I've been here before (more than once) and don't have the reserves to continue printing after this issue. But we will still put out a great magazine and I hope you'll stick with us!

Friday, March 20, 2020

The Essential Herbal March/April 2020 Issue


 We've got another great issue out!  It's full of good stuff, just verging on spring. 
Check it out:
 TABLE OF CONTENTS
Cover Photo, Jen Frey
Walking with the Redwoods

Herbal Lingo Crossword
We use some unusual words.
Field Notes from the Editor, Tina Sams
Nothing stays the same forever, but maybe it can be even better.               
Pollinator Gardens, Jackie Johnson
Help the pollinators with beautiful plants.                                                         
Schisandra Knows What You Need, Tina Sams
This very unusual berry is a very versatile adaptogen.                                   
My Other “Herb” Garden, Rebekah Bailey
The birds and the bees, and the flowers and the trees…                               
Cottage Gardening, Kathy Musser
How to design a cottage garden, and perfect flowering plants to include.  
Puzzle Solution                                                                                                     
Osha Root, Sandy Michelsen
Bear Medicine is another name for this “at risk” root.
Scentimental Favorites, Alicia Allen
Growing herbs for flavor and scent.                                                                   
Damiana Love Soap, Marci Tsohonis
Love is for every day, and so is this soap
J                                                     
French Cousins, Rita Richardson
Try chervil and sorrel for some new flavors.                                                     
Creative & Tasty Approach to Treating Allergies, Tony(a) Lemos           
An eco-spiritual approach to working with some surprising allies.
My Top Springtime Uses for Vinegar, Marcy Lautanen-Raleigh               
Freshen up the house with some citrus and vinegar.
Book Excerpt, Herbalism at Home, Kristine Brown                                      
Anxiety Tea Blend from the book!
Artemisia Herb, Barbara Steele
A description of several varieties, and several tarragon recipes.                  
Meet Our Contributors


Subscribe

I've looked at clouds...

Forever ago, when my sister and I were renaissance herbalists at the faire 4 months out of the year, we met a lot of interesting people. One day when most everyone was at the end-of-day joust, a woman stood out front of the shop with us and told us how she "read" clouds. That day had an expressive sky, including the sunbursts through holes in clouds (which she called God skies) and lots of majestic imagery. It was fascinating, particularly since I love to watch the sky.

At this house, I can see all of the sky. Tonight after dinner I went out to take in the evening breeze. The sky was amazing.
I thought maybe I'd give it a try to see what the sky had to tell me, but looking around, it struck me that it would be pretty difficult. First on the left (east) the clouds showed vivid movement.
Straight ahead to the south, there was a little more light but enough darkness to be "stormy."
To the west, the sky was beginning to break up and let some light and color through.  The clouds are swoopy and have a watery appearance, like perhaps there are small fish in a school among seaweeds or sea birds. 
But then, I remembered that one of my favorite activities when the weather is warm, is to throw back my head (or even better, lie on my back and look at nothing but sky) and watch the swirling madness.
It can become overwhelming and almost oppressive.  There have been times when it has become frightening in the utter endlessness, making it feel almost difficult to breathe.
It can be incredibly relaxing to feel separate from the world for a moment, and let my mind flow with the clouds, releasing any worries or concerns.  Today, right now, that was a good thing.
Finally, looking back down, the sky was breaking up.  At first glance, there was a giant heart.  Then it was a happy, fluffy dog running to the left and turning to look back.  You probably see other things too.

At first I thought, "well there's no message here." 
Then I realized that I had to look in so many different directions to see all the things that are going on that there's no way to take it all in.  It's just beyond human comprehension.
And so it is with life at this moment in time.  We're all filled with uncertainty, varying degrees of concern - or outright fear, and there's plenty of anger and loneliness out there, too.

So let's keep our eyes open and looking around.  Be sure and look for good things and good people.  Look out for others when you can, and always keep an eye on the other end of the tunnel.  We'll get there.

Sunday, March 15, 2020

Elderberry - New Research.


Since there just isn't enough confusion about elderberry on line right now (that's a joke, btw), I thought I'd throw this article into the mix :-)

Elderberry Toxicity


Rebekah Bailey
The Essential Herbal Nov/Dec 2019

Writing this particular article proved to be one of my more interesting writing experiences.  I had completed and submitted it, only to have a series of events unfold in the following couple of days which required Tina and I to discuss a re-write. 


In a serendipitous turn of events, only hours after reviewing my article, Tina was approached by an elderberry farmer who mentioned new research being conducted on elderberry toxicity.  As a result, I was able to run down and interview Andy Thomas, a research professor with the University of Missouri Southwest Center. He shared with me details of an elderberry toxicity research project, due to be published in the coming months. I will begin with the currently accepted information on elderberry toxicity, and then follow up with what I learned from Thomas.

Conventional wisdom regarding elderberries has been they are toxic when raw, and that the cyanide producing compound in them is neutralized with heat.  Elderberry branches, stems, leaves, and seeds contain potential cyanide in the form of cyanogenic glycosides. When ingested, these glycosides react with an enzyme, beta-glucosidase, and hydrolyze, releasing hydrogen cyanide. Elderberries aren't the only food containing cyanogenic glycosides: Lima beans, flax seed, almonds, apple seeds, cherry and plum pits, apricot and peach pits, cassava (the source of tapioca), spinach, peas, soy, and bamboo shoots.  However, I don't see anyone loosing sleep over eating spinach and lima beans ... ummm, well, maybe if you don't like those vegetables.
Exposure to small amounts of cyanide can cause dizziness, headache, nausea, vomiting, rapid breathing, and rapid heart rate. Exposure to larger amounts can cause convulsions, loss of consciousness, low blood pressure, and respiratory failure. How much ingested cyanide is toxic to human beings? Well I couldn't find an exact number, but one source cited 98 mg in one day (and stated the lowest documented lethal dose as 37.8 mg), and the John Hopkins Center for Health Security cites 100-200 mg when ingested as sodium or potassium cyanide.  Another source cited "0.5-3.5 mg/kg bw. Approximately 50-60 mg of free cyanide constitutes a lethal dose for an adult man."  The human body is able to clear small amounts of cyanide through the liver involving a molecule called thiosulfate, and if enough tiosulfate is not present, then cyanide poisoning occurs.  Taking this into account, it stands to reason that poisoning will vary from person to person, depending on body weight, fasting/non-fasting, and individual metabolic factors.

Having a general idea of how much cyanide is lethal, the next question is how much cyanide can you find in elderberry? I could only find a couple of sources, which both stated 3mg per 100 g of fresh berries, and up to 17mg per 100 g of fresh leaves.  However, when I followed up with both articles' source material, Assessment Report on Sambucus nigra L., fructus by the European Medicines Agency, I could find no such numbers.  What the report did state was that information regarding the level of cyanogenic glycosides in the fruits and seed was not available.  Of the two sources I found, one came to the conclusion that it’s inconclusive just what the concentration of cyanogenic glycosides found in the berries and flowers.  If you were to go by the amount of 3 mg, then it would take eating approximately 3 pounds of raw elderberries to get a toxic dose of cyanide.

Here is where the new Missouri University elderberry study becomes relevant.  The University, working in conjunction with several state agencies and farmers, have been exploring elderberry as a commercial crop. A range of different studies have been conducted and written about, the most recent focusing on the toxicity issue. 
Photo by Susan Hess
The study focused on American Elderberry (Sambucus Canadensis), which is a different species than the European Elderberry (Sambucus nigra).  Thomas referenced another study which established that cyanogenic glycosides in American Elderberry are lower than those found in the European Elderberry. The toxicity study only encompassed the edible berries, and did not include the leaves, stems, and branches. Tested were ripe berries, red/under-ripe berries, green berries, and pedicels (tiny stems that attach berries to the umbel). Thomas stated that they even had a student who painstakingly separated skin, seeds, pulp, and juice of berries, so the individual parts could be tested for glycosides.  Using the levels of cyanogenic glycosides found in commercial apple juice as a benchmark, the study found that all parts of the raw elderberry – green, red or ripe – contained lower levels of glycosides than commercial apple juice.  The study also examined the levels of beta-glucosidase found in elderberries.  Cyanogenic glycosides in elderberries represent a potential for cyanide, but only convert to cyanide if reacted with beta-glucosidase. The study found there were insufficient quantities of beta-glucosidase to convert the glucosides to cyanide.

The study concluded that the raw berries of the American Elderberry were as safe, if not safer, than commercial apple juice because 1) cyanogenic glycoside levels were extremely low, and 2) insufficient quantities of beta-glucosidase were present to convert any glycosides to cyanide.

The good news is that it doesn't matter if we know the exact levels of glycosides in elderberry.  What matters is that we know that cyanide evaporates at a temperature of a little over 78°F (26°C).

I found a pretty comprehensive study of the effects of heating on cyanogenic glycosides, which was informative, and reassuring.  In the study, bitter apricot seed was boiled in water for 15 minutes, resulting in a 98% reduction in glycosides.  Bamboo shoots were down 91% after 15 minutes of boiling, and no detectable traces were found after 60 minutes of boiling.  Cassava boiled for 20 minutes was down by 97%, and only trace glycosides were found after 35 minutes.  Flax seed was dry heated for 15 minutes, resulting in only a 10% reduction in glycosides.  The study referenced previous studies of dry heating which resulted in only 16-18% reductions, and concluded that dry-heating did not reduce cyanide content effectively.

I’d like to add one little side note, not related to toxicity, but relevant to heating elderberries.  There are a few studies which have examined the effects of heating elderberry.  One such study found “short-time heat treatment reduces potential allergy-related risks deriving from elderberry consumption without seriously affecting its properties as an antioxidant and free-radical scavenging food.”  Another study indicates gentle heating may render the polyphenols in elderberry more bioavailable, but this particular aspect is still controversial, and needs additional study.

Taking all of this information into consideration, my personal conclusion is that elderberries are as safe to consume as apples, with or without heating. Care should be taken to remove leaves, stems and branches, and a short 15 minute gentle simmer shouldn’t adversely affect the beneficial properties of the berries. While not the tastiest raw berries I’ve sampled, when checking my bushes this afternoon, I didn’t hesitate to pop a handful of elderberries into my mouth.


Editor's Note:  For the first 10 years of herbalizin' I didn't heat the berries before tincturing.  Then, after having zero problems in all that time, as far as stomach problems, the internet terrorized me into cooking them first.  Now I will say that heat releases their juice more easily - so that is one benefit.

Wednesday, March 11, 2020

Wild and Free Food - Wild Foods for Every Table - free download

In addition to the recipes I posted yesterday, I decided to make the PDF of this (long out of print) book available.  Just knowing a few greens and roots can make a huge difference when times are tough.  They're full of nutrients. 
Click on the link to go to the page on the website, and then download from there.  There is no need to give any information at all.  No email, no name - nothing.  Just download the book.

https://essentialherbal.com/pages/wild-food-for-every-table

Enjoy.
Be well.

Monday, March 09, 2020

Wild and Free Food - Pestos

Pestos add flavor and nutrients to things like pasta, potatoes, rice, beans, or even soups and stews.

When you think of pesto, it is usually the flavor that comes to mind.  Maybe after that, you think about how easy it is to whip up a last minute meal without heating up the kitchen in the summer.  We mostly think about Basil, but many other herbs can be used.  Rarely do most of us think about the immense health benefits derived from these herb pastes, but we really should.  It can go on pasta, you can slather it on a sandwich, add a dollop to soups, or use it as dip.  Pesto is an easy food to eat in a lot of different ways.

Earlier this year, I was trying to think of pleasant ways to eat more raw garlic during cold and flu season.  This is really a subject that has confounded me for many years since garlic was not a typical ingredient in the PA German fare of my childhood.  It is an ingredient that I at first struggled to acquire a taste for and eventually came to enjoy.  Still, eating raw garlic is one of the simplest ways to kick a virus, and when I realized that pesto was not cooked, it was a revelation for me.

Here are some of the reasons that pesto is more than just a sauce:

Garlic

- Incredible healing powers that help to prevent influenza, colds, yeasts and fungus and contains antiseptic, antibiotic, antiviral, bactericidal, and anti-inflammatory properties.  After watching my daughter go through over a week of the nasty, wheezing, upper respiratory virus this winter (after refusing all offers of my herbal concoctions), naturally, I started coming down with it.  Over the course of a day and a half, I ate about 2 full bulbs of garlic and was quickly on the mend.  You could smell me coming, but at least I wasn't sick.

Basil

- All of the culinary basils (and of course holy basil as well) work hard against inflammation. Basil is rich in anti-oxidants that combat aging and support the immune system and can combat stress, help with upper respiratory illnesses, battle headaches, or calm the stomach and improve digestion.   

Walnuts (who can afford pine nuts anymore?) - Walnuts contain both monounsaturated fatty acids and Omega 3 essential fatty acids to promote healthier arteries and cholesterol levels, helping to possibly prevent strokes and heart disease.  They contain very high levels of antioxidants and are packed with the B Complex vitamins, tons of beneficial minerals, and vitamin E.


Olive Oil - Bolsters immune system and helps to fight viruses.  Consuming olive oil mproves bone mineralization and calcification. It helps calcium absorption.  There are many long term benefits to olive oil.

Many other herbs can be blended into pastes.  They don't have to be single, they can be blends like Basil and Chickweed, Sage and Nettles, etc., but do consider some of these benefits:

Thyme

Thyme is a rich source of nutrition, even in small quantities.  It is a treasure trove of vitamins C, B6, K, and A, riboflavin, iron, copper, manganese, calcium, folate, phosphorus, potassium, and zinc.  One compound, Thymol is one of a naturally-occurring class of compounds known as biocides that can destroy harmful organisms like bacteria, microbes, and viruses. Combined with other biocides, such as carvacolo (also in thyme), it has strong antimicrobial power and displays significant anti-oxidant protection of cellular membranes.  

Sage

- Sage is an amazing source of several B-complex vitamins, including folic acid, thiamin, pyridoxine and riboflavin.  Lots of the vitamins C and A, plus minerals like potassium, zinc, calcium, iron, manganese, copper, and magnesium.  Highly anti-inflammatory, sage is a powerful herb for people with conditions caused by or worsened by inflammation such as rheumatoid arthritis, asthma, and atherosclerosis.

Chickweed

Packed with vitamins and minerals like iron, calcium, magnesium, manganese, silicon, zinc, phosphorus, potassium, protein sodium, copper, carotenes, and vitamins B and C, chickweed also has saponins that help with joint inflammation.  

Nettles 

Contain
tannic acid, lecithin, chlorophyll, iron, silica, potassium, phosphorus, sulfur, sodium, and vitamins A and C.  Some of the talents Nettles bring to the table include being diuretic, astringent, pectoral, anodyne, tonic, styptic, nutritive, anti-rheumatic, anti-allergenic, decongestant, expectorant, anti-spasmodic, and anti-histamine, herpetic, galactagogue, and an anti-histamine. Grinding the herb to paste takes the sting away without destroying the valuable components.



Violet Leaves 

There are lots of vital minerals, especially calcium and magnesium available in the leaves.  The leaves and flowers contain Rutin, a bioflavonoid that is helpful in the treatment of venous insufficiency and lowered blood flow to various parts of the body.  Specifically, hemorrhoids and varicose veins may respond to consuming violet leaves.  The leaves especially contain saponins and mucilage, having a positive effect on regularity of elimination, lung health, and can soothe the entire gastro-intestinal and urinary tracts.  

Simple Basil Pesto Recipe

Put the following directly into the food processor:
1 Cup basil leaves
5 - 6 cloves of Garlic
1 Cup grated Parmesan cheese
1/2 Cup Walnuts
1/4 Cup olive oil
Process until smooth.   

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